He was a powerful monarch and started invading states and territories to increase his empire over the Indian subcontinent. The victims allegedly hatched a conspiracy to overthrow Alauddin, but this might be Kafur's propaganda. Alauddin was married to Malika-I-Jahan, but the … When The other section, led by Zafar Khan, marched to Delhi via Koil (modern Aligarh). Alauddin Khilji was one of India’s greatest kings and one of the world’s greatest military geniuses. Confident of the support of the Neo-Muslims in the army and the approval of the general public, they plot to assassinate Sultan. [97], Alauddin implemented price control measures for a wide variety of market goods. yes, he killed his uncle, but we can’t say that the way he killed his uncle by is proven so it’s only the dramatic plot because it’s a movie. Khizr Khan could not understand why his father was angry with him so much. [64], The plunder obtained from Devagiri prompted Alauddin to plan an invasion of the other southern kingdoms, which had accumulated a huge amount of wealth, having been shielded from the foreign armies that had ransacked northern India. It is believed that quite a lot of the historical memoirs were written solely for the purpose of projecting a powerful… [162], Alp Khan who was transferred to Gujarat in 1310, is praised by Jain sources for permitting reconstruction of their temples. Alauddin ordered an inquiry against them sometime before 1311. They accused the Sultan of tyrannizing the people and unjustly imposing high taxes. Alauddin instituted a number of significant administrative changes, related to revenues, price controls, and society. Every sentiment of kindness and clemency became extinct in the Sultan’s heart when anything harmful for the state was done. He is noted for repulsing the Mongol invasions of India. This, combined with their general grievances against Alauddin, led to resentment among Mongols who had settled in India after converting to Islam. Meanwhile, he himself led another army to conquer Chittor, the capital of the Guhila kingdom ruled by Ratnasimha. Under his vigorous administration, merchants, money lenders, landholders, and intriguing nobility all suffered terribly. A gullible Jalaluddin set out for Kara with his army. [163] Kakkasuri in Nabhi-nandana-jinoddhara-prabandha mentions Alp Khan issuing a farman permitting the Jain merchant Samara Shah to renovate a damaged Shatrunjaya temple. [74][75], From Dwarasamudra, Malik Kafur marched to the Pandya kingdom, where he raided several towns. The first Hindu wife of Alauddin was Jhatyapali, daughter of Ramachandra, king of Devagiri. Of Alauddin's first year as the Sultan, chronicler Ziauddin Barani wrote that it was the happiest year that the people of Delhi had ever seen. At times, he exploited Muslim fanaticism against Hindu chiefs and the treatment of the zimmis. [73] However, he could not put up a strong resistance, and negotiated a truce after a short siege, agreeing to surrender his wealth and become a tributary of Alauddin. One day when he was in a private audience with the Alauddin Khilji, he accused Alp Khan of being the source of all the trouble. If the bulk of the population, as well as most of the landholders and peasants, were Hindus, it was but natural that Hindus would suffer the most from his revenue and market regulations. The popular story is about how Alauddin Khilji attacked Chittor, he fell for Padmini on seeing her reflection in the mirror. Alauddin's Madrasa, Qutb complex, Mehrauli, which also has his tomb to the south. Malik Kafur invaded Devagiri again in 1313, defeated him, and became the governor of Devagiri. Next, he conspires Alauddin’s death, by injecting harmful liquid into his veins, leaving him to die of Oedema. Impressed by his victories, Alauddin Khilji had made him the governor of Deccan with headquarters at Devagiri. As pointed out before, his counselors like Zafar Khan, Nusrat Khan, Ulugh Khan, and Ala-ul Mulk all died before 1302 while Alp Khan was staying away in Gujarat until about 1314. [79][80] Unlike the previous rulers of the Delhi Sultanate, who had largely relied on the pre-existing administrative set-up, Alauddin undertook large-scale reforms. He traveled day and night to reach the capital. On his arrival, Khizr Khan apologized to his father. All the men of respect and integrity like Malik Qiran, Amir-i-Shikar and Malik Qira Beg were dismissed from service. The Sultan successfully reduced Chittor in 1303 which had not taken by any previous Sultan and which put an edge on the teeth of even a strong Emperor like Akbar. [82] Barani also attributes Alauddin's revenue reforms to the Sultan's desire to subjugate the Hindus by "depriving them of that wealth and property which fosters rebellion". [118] Barani claims that according to "some people", Kafur murdered him. He was the real brother of Mallika-i-Jahan and was in the good looks of Alauddin Khilji. The Delhi army also captured several people, including the Vaghela queen Kamala Devi and slave Malik Kafur, who later led Alauddin's southern campaigns. Khizr Khan was born with a silver spoon in his mouth and naturally, could not understand the tricks of Malik Kafur. After 1303, Alauddin became busy in economic and marketing reform. Alauddin’s barbarous punishment of traders, the atrocities of Nusrat Khan on the people of Delhi and the callousness of the Sultan in killing his kith and kin are simply appalling. Let us study the history of the Indian Subcontinent from the prehistoric times to 2020. Alaud-Dīn Khaljī (r. 1296–1316), born as Ali Gurshasp, was the emperor of the Khalji dynasty that ruled the Delhi Sultanate in the Indian subcontinent. Alauddin's administration meted out brutal punishments to the mutineers' families in Delhi, including killings of children in front of their mothers. There is no doubt that Alauddin’s administrative system had its defects. Alauddin's forces, led by Malik Kafur, decisively defeated the Mongols. Hindustan me khilji khandan ke dusre Sultan aur khilji khandan ke sabse taqatwar Sultan Alauddin khilji the inka paidaishi naam Ali garshasp khilji tha.Unki paidaish Delhi me 1266 ko hui. While sani is Arabic for to 'Second'. He left Devagiri with a huge amount of wealth, including precious metals, jewels, silk products, elephants, horses, and slaves. a Sanskrit inscription at Jodhpur, dated in Alauddin’s reign, the Hindu author paid tribute to Alauddin through whose “god-like valor the earth was rid of all tyranny.” Kakka Suri, the author of Nabhinandana-jinodhara-prabhanda writes about Alauddin: Resembling Indra in prowess, Alavadin covered the earth on all sides like an ocean. However, a section of Ruknuddin's army defected to Alauddin at midnight. The inquiry was conducted by the orthodox ulama, who found several Ismailis guilty. To ensure that no horse could be presented twice or replaced by a poor-quality horse during the review, Alauddin established a system of branding the horses. However, public distribution and drinking of wine remained prohibited. According to the later chronicler Barani, he rarely heeded to the orthodox ulema but believed "that the Hindu will never be submissive and obedient to the Musalman unless the Hindu is reduced to extreme poverty." Mubarak took the title of Al Wasiq Bilah & declared himself the Khalifa. When he reached Siri, Ruknuddin led an army against him. He was suffering from dropsy and other physical disorder. [69], During the siege of Warangal, Malik Kafur had learned about the wealth of the Hoysala and Pandya kingdoms located further south. It is widely believed that Alauddin was without any literary education, though like Akbar and Ranjit Singh after him, he confirmed by example the Tennysonian dictum: But though unlettered, Alauddin possessed sufficient common sense, experience, and wisdom which multiplied with age. Alauddin appointed Ala-ul Mulk as the kotwal of Delhi and placed all the non-Turkic municipal employees under his charge. The invaders ransacked Delhi and its neighbourhoods, but ultimately decided to retreat after being unable to breach Siri. [2] His original name was Ali Gurshasp. Khalji minted coins using the title of Sikander Sani. The effect was both large landowners and small-scale cultivators were fearful of missing out on paying their assessed taxes. [91] He did not levy any additional taxes on agriculture, and abolished the cut that the intermediaries received for collecting revenue. In a 1305 document, Khusrau mentions that Alauddin treated the obedient Hindu zamindars (feudal landlords) kindly, and granted more favours to them than they had expected. All their property, including the money earlier given to them by Alauddin, was confiscated. His astounding success against the Maratha army of Devagiri established his reputation as a brilliant commander. He undertook measures to impoverish them and felt it was justified because he knew the Hindu chiefs and muqaddams led a luxurious life but didn't pay a jital in taxes. Isami has written that Alauddin Khilji had refused to listen to the false accusations against his faithful minister and commander. The Hindu was to be reduced to be so reduced as to be unable to keep a horse to ride on, wear fine clothes, or to enjoy any luxuries of life. When Alauddin came to know of the departure of Maulana Shamsuddin Turk without meeting him, he was sorely disappointed. His policy left a number of faithful allies in the South who not only remained loyal and obedient to him but also helped him in many of his military enterprises. [160], Per Jain sources, Alauddin held discussions with Jain sages and once specially summoned Acharya Mahasena to Delhi. [131] He rose rapidly in Alauddin's service, mainly because of his proven ability as military commander and wise counsellor,[116] and eventually became the viceroy (Na'ib) of the Sultanate. On his orders, Nusrat Khan arrested, blinded and/or killed the surviving members of Jalaluddin's family. [93], To ensure that the goods were sold at regulated prices, Alauddin appointed market supervisors and spies, and received independent reports from them. [151] Wassaf states that "The Muhammadan forces began to kill and slaughter on the right and on the left unmercifully, throughout the impure land, for the sake of Islam, and blood flowed in torrents. [115] He became infatuated with his slave-general Malik Kafur, who became the de facto ruler of the Sultanate after being promoted to the rank of viceroy (Na'ib). [56], In 1306, another Mongol army sent by Duwa advanced up to the Ravi River, ransacking the territories along the way. The fortified city of Siri existed in the time of Timur, whose memoirs state that it had seven gates. Alauddin’s legacy. Khilji greatly expanded the empire that he inherited from his uncle, Sultan Jalaluddin Khilji, after killing him. [7], In 1291, Alauddin played an important role in crushing a revolt by the governor of Kara Malik Chajju. He undertook measures to impoverish them and felt it was justified because he knew that the chiefs and muqaddams led a luxurious life but never paid a jital in taxes. Raised By His Uncle: Founder of the Khilji Dynasty. Ala-ud-din Khilji or Alauddin Khilji (r. 1296- died 1316), born as Juna Khan Khilji, was the second ruler of the Khilji dynasty in Northern India, and ruled from 1296 to 1316. As long as Alauddin Khilji was young and enjoyed good health, his iron hand and will steer the course of the government well but as soon as his health began to decline, trouble brewed up on all sides. [145] Barani's uncle Alaul Mulk convinced him to drop this idea, stating that a new religion could only be found based on a revelation from god, not based on human wisdom. He was the eldest son of Shihabuddin Mas'ud, who was the elder brother of the Khalji dynasty's founder Sultan Jalaluddin. [88] He imposed a 50% kharaj tax on the agricultural produce in a substantial part of northern India: this was the maximum amount allowed by the Hanafi school of Islam, which was dominant in Delhi at that time.[89]. After Nusrat Khan was killed during the siege, Alauddin personally took charge of the siege operations, and conquered the fort in July 1301. Alauddin's 30,000-strong cavalry, led by Malik Nayak, defeated the Mongols at the Battle of Amroha. Malik Kafur committed innumerable crimes behind his Sultan’s back. Many people, from both military and non-military backgrounds, joined him. Raj Babbar Wiki, Age, Caste, Wife, Children, Family, Biography & More [148] Persian historian Wassaf states that he sent an expedition against Gujarat as a holy war and it was not motivated by "lust of conquest". and more serious. [146] Alaul Mulk also argued that even great conquerors like Genghis Khan had not been able to subvert Islam, and people would revolt against Alauddin for founding a new religion. Contemporary chroniclers did not write much about Alauddin's childhood. [40] Some later legends state that Alauddin invaded Chittor to capture Ratnasimha's beautiful queen Padmini, but most modern historians have rejected the authenticity of these legends. [48] He also implemented a series of economic reforms to ensure sufficient revenue inflows for maintaining a strong army. [161] There was no learned Digambracarya in North India during this period and Mahasena was persuaded by Jains to defend the faith. Malik Kafur was sent to crush the rebellion. Alauddin Khilji’s over-centralization and conversion of jagirs into crown lands (Khalisa) had left many Mongol nobles destitute. [109] Alauddin's administration strictly punished the violators, and ensured non-availability of alcohol not only in Delhi, but also in its surrounding areas. He also had to face talk of conspiracies at his court. [119] Based on Barani's description, scholars Ruth Vanita and Saleem Kidwai believe that Alauddin and Kafur were in a homosexual relationship. 979 talking about this. about Rani Padmini, the queen of Chittorgarh, and Alauddin Khilji, the ruler of Delhi.According to media reports the film is portraying a love story between Padmini and Khilji. Alauddin Khalji was the nephew and son-in-law of Jalal-ud-din. [95] However, while the cultivators were free from the demands of the landowners, the high taxes imposed by the state meant a culviator had "barely enough for carrying on his cultivation and his food requirements. The Jain poet Acharya Ramachandra Suri was also honored by him. [30] According to Ziauddin Barani, the practice of punishing wives and children for the crimes of men started with this incident in Delhi. The region beyond Lahore suffered from Mongol raids and Khokhar rebellions. Deepika Padukone is not the first actress to play Padmavati on-screen? Courts to the east of Quwwat ul-Islam mosque, in Qutb complex added by Khalji in 1300 CE. His strenuous work habits, hard labor, and irregular habits had severely told upon his body. [36] To suppress any future rebellions, he set up an intelligence and surveillance system, instituted a total prohibition in Delhi, established laws to prevent his nobles from networking with each other, and confiscated wealth from the general public. Alauddin was perhaps the only Sultan of the Sultanate who never went to the Friday prayers and did not permit religious considerations to interfere with the state administration, yet he was a good Muslim. 19. In medieval times, when women, wine and music were the order of the day, Alauddin led a life free from unbridled debauchery. Death info about Alauddin Khilji Alauddin Khilji, suffering from ascites, spent his last time in extreme difficulties and died on 2 January 1316 AD. [106], Alauddin's government maintained a descriptive roll of every soldier, and occasionally conducted strict reviews of the army to examine the horses and arms of the soldiers. The Sultan Alauddin Khilji was now seriously ill and the Naib himself transacted all the business of the state in his name. [15], Alauddin's march to Delhi was interrupted by the flooding of the Yamuna river. Severe punishments were given for disloyalty. "[92], To enforce these land and agrarian reforms, Alauddin set up a strong and efficient revenue administration system. Alauddin gave each of them 30 to 50 manns of gold, and each of their soldiers 300 silver tankas (hammered coins). Alauddin Khilji was an administrative entrepreneur. [18][19], Shortly after the conquest of Multan, Alauddin appointed Nusrat Khan as his wazir (prime minister). According to Isami, Alauddin banned alcohol, after a noble condemned him for merrymaking when his subjects were suffering from a famine. [149] The masnavi Deval Devi—Khizr Khan by Amir Khusrau states that Gujarat was only annexed in the second invasion which took place seven years after the first one, implying the first was merely a plundering raid. When Ballala learned about Kafur's march, he hurried back to his capital Dwarasamudra. "[156], Alauddin believed "that the Hindu will never be submissive and obedient to the Musalman unless he is reduced to abject poverty." Assuming this is correct, Alauddin's birth can be dated to 1266–1267. In 1306, his forces achieved a decisive victory against the Mongols near the Ravi riverbank, and later ransacked the Mongol territories in present-day Afghanistan. Barani wrote that he:[148]. Both Vira and Sundara fled their headquarters, and thus, Kafur was unable to make them Alauddin's tributaries. He convinced Jalaluddin to visit Kara and meet Alauddin, saying that Alauddin would commit suicide out of guilt if the Sultan didn't pardon him personally. However, Arkali refused to come to her aid. [85] However, his other regulations, including price control, were revoked by his son Qutbuddin Mubarak Shah a few months after his death. But the ruling passion of the Sultan was unbridled ambition. Although Zafar Khan managed to inflict heavy casualties on the invaders, he and other soldiers in his unit were killed in the battle. [15] A dejected Ruknuddin then retreated and escaped to Multan with his mother and the loyal nobles. After conquering the throne by killing his uncle and predecessor, Jalaluddin Firuz Khilji, he continued his legacy of invading states and territories to increase his empire over the Indian subcontinent. He is noted for repulsing the Mongol invasions of India. He had an assistant that is “Malik Kafur” who took the succession after Khilji’s death. [35] During the Ranthambore campaign, Alauddin faced three unsuccessful rebellions. Such tyranny on the one hand and Alauddin Khilji’s disgraceful attachment to Kafur affected Sultan’s prestige. [153], He compromised with the Hindu chiefs who were willing to accept his suzerainty. Henceforth, "everybody was busy earning with earning a living so that nobody could even think of rebellion". [110] Sometime later, Alauddin relented, and allowed distillation and drinking in private. [12], Meanwhile, Alauddin's younger brother Almas Beg (later Ulugh Khan), who was married to a daughter of Jalaluddin, assured the Sultan of Alauddin's loyalty. [119] Towards the end of the night, Kafur brought the body of Alauddin from the Siri Place and had it buried in Alauddin's mausoleum (which had already been built before Alauddin's death). In accordance with this opinion, whatever affair of state came before him, he only looked to the public good, without considering whether his mode of dealing with it was lawful or unlawful. [21] In 1297,[22] the aristocrats (maliks), who had deserted Jalaluddin's family to join Alauddin, were arrested, blinded or killed. [4] At Bhilsa, he came to know about the immense wealth of the southern Yadava kingdom in the Deccan region, as well as about the routes leading to their capital Devagiri. [45][46] Under these difficult circumstances, Alauddin took shelter in a heavily guarded camp at the under-construction Siri Fort. Ascending the throne at the age of 30, Alauddin had reached the apogee of power at 45 through unrivaled skill, studied tact and phenomenal energy. Meanwhile, Malik Kafur and Alp Khan were ranged in opposition. [11] When the news of Alauddin's success reached Jalaluddin, the Sultan came to Gwalior, hoping that Alauddin would present the loot to him there. The precautions he took to see that the news of his raid into Devgiri did not reach the imperial court compels admiration. He also convinced Alauddin to order the killing of his brother-in-law Alp Khan, an influential noble who could rival Malik Kafur's power. Because of the large presence of non-Muslims in the imperial army, Alaul Mulk advised him not to leave Delhi to repel the Mongol Qutlugh Khwaja who had surrounded it. His administration persecuted the Ismaili (Shia) minorities, after the orthodox Sunnis falsely accused them of permitting incest in their "secret assemblies". By the time he reached Badaun, he had a 56,000-strong cavalry and a 60,000-strong infantry. Alauddin Khilji had become very insecure about his position during the last years of his life. [70] Kafur started his march from Delhi in November 1310,[71] and crossed Deccan in early 1311, supported by Alauddin's tributaries Ramachandra and Prataparudra. But Malik Kafur knew how to deal with Alp Khan since the Sultan Alauddin Khilji was now bed-ridden. [16], Initially, Alauddin consolidated power by making generous grants and endowments, and appointing many people to the government positions. Since his capture in Gujarat n 1299, he had long enjoyed the confidence and affection of the Sultan Alauddin Khilji. [97] He also levied taxes on residences (ghari) and grazing (chara'i), which were not sanctioned by the Islamic law. [49], In 1304, Alauddin appears to have ordered a second invasion of Gujarat, which resulted in the annexation of the Vaghela kingdom to the Delhi Sultanate. Alauddin’s life-work seemed to be undone. [147] Barani's claim that Alauddin thought of founding a religion has been repeated by several later chroniclers as well as later historians. [32] In the ensuing Battle of Kili, Alauddin personally led the Delhi forces, but his general Zafar Khan attacked the Mongols without waiting for his orders. 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